Anatomy: Feet

Bones of the feet

The Calcaneus (heel bone) which is connected to the talus on top and cuboid in front

The Navicular is on the medial side of the foot, in front of the talus

The Lateral, Medial and Intermediate Cuneiforms, connect to the first, second and third metatarsals.

The Cuboid is located on the lateral side of the foot beside the cuneiforms.

The fourth and fifth metatarsals are connected to the cuboid.

The phalanges (14 different bones) connect to the metatarsals to make your toes.


Arches of the feet

Longitudinal arches: lateral and medial

Transverse arch

Plantar fascia What is it? The connective tissue that holds part of the underside of the foot together, protect the sole of the foot from injury and helps support the longitudinal arches of the foot. Plantar fasciitis can occur when there is inflammation in the plantar fascia from high-impact movement without the proper footwear- or weak feet.


Muscles of the feet

There are twenty muscles in the foot.

Fourteen of those muscles are on the bottom of the foot and these muscles maintain the arches of the foot, and function during the stance phase of movement.

These muscles also allow the foot to adjust to uneven ground by supinating and pronating the foot.

They include:

  • Flexor Digitorum Brevis
  • Flexor Hallucis Brevis
  • Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
  • Flexor Hallucis Longus
  • Flexor Digitorum Longus
  • Adductor Hallucis
  • Abductor Hallucis
  • Abductor Digiti Minimi
  • Lumbricals
  • Quadratus Plantae

Two muscles attach on the top of the foot

They include:

  • Extensor digitorum Brevis
  • Extensor digitorum Hallucis

And four muscles are in between those two layers.

  • plantar interossei
  • dorsal interossei

Want some exercises to strengthen your feet? Click here.

Moore.K.K.,Agur.A.M., & Dalley,A.F. Essential Clinical Anatomy (4th ed). Wolters Kluwer. (2011). Pg 321, 351, 371

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