Anatomy: Shoulders


Posterior Shoulder

MuscleAttachementNerve SupplyActionsSpecial Tests
DeltoidO: Lateral 3rd of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula
I: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Axillary Nerve – Flexes shoulder
– Abducts shoulder
– Extends shoulder
Deltoids Strength and Length Tests
Supraspinatus O: Supraspinous fossa of scapula
I: Greater tubercle of humerus
Suprascapular Nerve– Lateral rotation of shoulder
-Shoulder abdution
Empty Can Test, Drop Arm Test,
Hawkin’s Kennedy Impingement Test,
Neer’s Impingement Test, Painful Arc Test
InfraspinatusO: Infraspinous fossa of scapula
I: Greater tubercle of humerus
Suprascapular Nerve – Lateral rotation of armInfraspinatus Strength Test
Teres Minor O: Middle part of lateral border of scapula
I: Greater tubercle of humerus
Axillary Nerve – Lateral rotation of armInfraspinatus Strength Test
Teres Major O: Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula
I: Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
Lower Subscapular Nerve– Adducts arm
– Medial rotation of arm
Shoulder Adductors Length Test
Subscapularis O: Subscapular fossa
I: Lesser tubercle of humerus
Upper and Lower Subscapular Nerve – Medial rotation of arm
-Adducts arm
Subscapularis Strength Test

Anterior Shoulder

MuscleAttachments Nerve Supply ActionsSpecial Tests
Pectoralis MajorO: Anterior surface of medial half of clavicle, anterior surface of sternum, superior 6 costal cartilages
I: Lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
Lateral and Medial Pectoral Nerves – Adduct humerus
– Medial rotation of humerus
Pectoralis Major Length Test
Pectoralis MinorO: 3rd– 5th ribs near their costal cartilages
I: Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula
Medial Pectoral Nerve– Stabilizes, internal rotation, abduction, downward rotation and depression of the scapulaPectoralis Minor Length Test, Wright’s Hyperabduction Test
SubclaviusO: Junction of 1st rib and costal cartilage
I: Inferior surface of middle third of clavicle
Subclavian Nerve– Anchors clavicle
– Depresses clavicle
Adson’s Test

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