Muscle Differentiation


Gastrocnemius & Soleus : Prone. Knee extension, resist plantar flexion

Soleus : Prone. Knee flexion, resist plantar flexion

Tibialis Posterior : Supine. Plantar flexion and ankle inversion

Tibialis Anterior : Supine. Dorsiflexion and ankle inversion

Fibularis Longus (Peroneals) : Supine. Plantar flexion and ankle eversion


Biceps Femoris : Supine. Knee flexion and lateral rotation of leg

Semimembranosus & Semitendinosus : Supine. Knee flexion and medial rotation of leg

Hip and Innominate

Gluteus Maximus & Hamstring : Prone, Extend hip

Gluteus Maximus : Prone, Flex knee and hip extension

Gluteus Minimus & Gluteus Medius : Side-lying, Abduct hip

Gluteus Minimus : Side-lying, Abduct hip and internally rotate hip

Gluteus Medius : Side-lying, Abduct hip and externally rotate hip

Rectus Femoris & Iliopsoas : Seated, Flex hip

Iliopsoas : Seated, Flex hip more

TFL : Supine. Flex hip, abduct hip, internally rotate hip, extend knee

Sartorius: Supine. Place leg into “Figure 4” position. Take out slightly. Tell client to try to get back to original position while you resist.

Upper & Mid Back

Lower Trapezius : Prone. Abduct shoulder 150 degrees then extend shoulder

Middle Trapezius : Prone. Abduct shoulder 90 degrees with thumbs pointing up

Upper Trapezius : Seated. Elevate shoulder, look up and turn head away from elevated shoulder

Rhomboids : Prone. Abduct arm 90 degrees with thumbs pointing down

Teres Major & Latissimus Dorsi : Prone. Place clients arm behind back. Lift elbow and try to take client out of that position

Latissimus Dorsi : Prone. Bring arm off table, apply pressure downward on arm as client resists.


Supraspinatus : Standing. Abduct shoulder 90 degrees. Bring shoulder to 30 degree flexion. Pronate wrist and apply pressure downwards along arm.

Infraspinatus & Teres Minor : Standing. Shoulder external rotation

Teres Minor : Standing. Horizontal shoulder external rotation

Anterior Deltoid, Biceps Brachii & Coracobrachialis : Standing. Flex shoulder to 30 degrees with slight elbow extension

Anterior Deltoid & Coracobrachialis : Standing. Flex shoulder 90 degrees

Coracobrachialis : Standing. Flex shoulder. Apply pressure down and away from body

Anterior Deltoid : Supine. Flex shoulder and internally rotate shoulder.

Serratus Anterior : Standing. Flex shoulder 120 degrees. Place thumb along anterior-lateral border of scapula. Try and pull arm down.

Levator Scapulae : Seated. Elevate shoulder. Look down towards that shoulder

Pectoralis Minor : Supine. Protract shoulder

Pectoralis Major – Clavicular head : Supine.Extend elbow. Flex shoulder 90 degrees and adduct shoulder

Pectoralis Major – Sternal head : Supine. Extend elbow. Flex shoulder 90 degrees. Have clients hand face their opposite shoulder and adduct shoulder.


Triceps Brachii : Standing. Abduct shoulder 45 degrees with flexed elbow. Try to adduct shoulder and extend elbow

Brachioradialis : Seated. Forearm is neutral. Flex shoulder slightly. Elbow slightly extended. Have the client try to flex elbow as you try to extend the elbow

Brachialis : Seated. Pronate forearm. Flex elbow and flex shoulder. Try to extend clients elbow

Biceps Brachii : Seated. Forearm supinated. Flex elbow and flex shoulder. Try to pronate and extend shoulder and elbow of client as they resist.

Supinator & Biceps Brachii : Seated. Flex elbow with thumb pointing up. Try to pronate forearm as client tries to supinate.

Supinator : Seated. Flex shoulder and flex elbow. Try to pronate clients arm

Pronator Teres sand Quadratus : Seated. Place elbow and wrist in neutral position. Tell client to supinate forearm as your resist.

Pronator Quadratus : Seated. Fully flex elbow. Hand should be facing jaw. Try to resist client as they supinate.


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