Anatomy: Hips

Posterior Hip

MusclesAttachementsNerve SupplyActionsSpecial Tests
Gluteus MaximusO:Ilium, Dorsal suface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament
I: IT Band, Gluteal Tuberosity
Inferior Gluteal Nerve – Extend hip
– Lateral Rotation of hip
Gluteus Maximus Strength Test
Gluteus MediusO: Ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines
I: Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur
Superior Gluteal Nerve– Abduct hip
– Medial rotation of hip
Trendelenburg’s Sign
Gluteus MinimusO: Ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
I: Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur
Superior Gluteal Nerve – Abduct hip
– Medial rotation of hip
Trendelenburg’s Sign
Piriformis O: Anterior surface of 2nd– 4th sacral segments, sacrotuberous ligamentS1, S2 – Lateral rotation of extended hip
– Abduction of hip when flexed
Pace Abduction Test, Piriformis Length Test

Deep Rotators of Hip

Muscles Attachements Nerve Supply Actions
Obturator Internus O: Pelvic surface of ilium and ischium, obturator membrane
I: Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur
L5, S1 ( Nerve to Obturator Internus)-Lateral rotation of extended hip
– Abduction of hip when flexed
Gemelli (Superior and Inferior)O: Superior- ischial spine, Inferior -ischial tuberosity
I: Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur
Superior: L5, S1 (Nerve to Obturator internus)
Inferior: L5, S1 ( Nerve to Quadratus femoris)
-Lateral rotation of extended hip
– Abduction of hip when flexed
Quadratus Femoris O: Lateral border of ischial tuberosity
I: Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur
L5, S1 ( Nerve to Quadratus Femoris)– Lateral rotation of hip

Anterior Hip

MusclesAttachementsNerve Supply ActionsSpecial Tests
PectineusO: Superior ramus of pubis
I: Pectineal line of femur
Femoral Nerve– Adduct hip
– Flex hip
Pectineus Strength and Length Tests
Psoas MajorO: Transverse processes of T12-L5 vertebrae
I: Lesser trochanter of femur
L1, L2, L3– Flex hip
Iliopsoas Strength Test,
FABER, Thomas Test
IliacusO: Iliac crest, Iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, anterior sacroiliac ligaments
I: Tendon of psoas major, lesser trochanter of femur
L2, L3– Flex hipIliopsoas Strength Test,
Thomas Test

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