Anatomy: Legs

Muscles of Posterior Thigh

MuscleAttachementsNerve SupplyActions Special Tests
Semitendinosus
(Hamstring)
O:Ischial Tuberosity
I: Medial surface of superior part of tibia
Tibial Nerve (Branched from Sciatic Nerve)-Extend hip
– Flex knee
– Internally rotate knee
Hamstring Strength Test
Semimembranosus (Hamstring) O: Ischial tuberosity
I: Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia
Tibial Nerve ( Branched from Sciatic Nerve)Extend hip
– Flex knee
– Internally rotate knee
Hamstring Strength Test
Biceps Femoris
(Hamstring)
O: Long Head : Ischial tuberosity,
Short head: Linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur
I: Lateral side of head of fibula
Long Head : Tibial Nerve, Short head: Fibular Nerve– Flex knee
– Lateral rotation of knee
– Extend hip
Hamstring Strength Test
Tensor Fasciae LataeO: Anterior superior iliac spine along anterior part of iliac crest
I: ITB
Superior Gluteal Nerve– Flex HipOber’s Test

Muscles of Anterior Thigh

MusclesAttachementsNerve Supply Actions Special Tests
Rectus femoris (Quadriceps)O: Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine
I: Quadriceps tendon
Femoral Nerve– Extend knee joint
– Stabilizes hip joint
Thomas Test, Clarke’s
Patello-femoral Grind Test, Ely’s Test
Vastus lateralis (Quadriceps)O: Greater Trochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera of femur
I: Quadriceps tendon
Femoral Nerve– Extend the knee jointThomas Test, Clarke’s Patello-femoral Grind Test
Vastus medialis
(Quadriceps)
O: Intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur
I: Quadriceps tendon
Femoral Nerve– Extend the knee jointThomas Test, Clarke’s Patello-femoral Grind Test
Vastus intermedius (Quadriceps)O: Anterior and lateral surface of femoral shaft
I: Quadriceps tendon
Femoral Nerve– Extend the knee jointThomas Test, Clarke’s Patello-femoral Grind Test
SartoriusO: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
I: Superior part of medial surface of tibia
Femoral Nerve– Flex hip
– Abduct hip
– Laterally rotates hip
-Flex knee
Sartorius Strength and Length Tests

Medial Compartment of Thigh

MusclesAttachementNerve Supply ActionSpecial Test
Adductor LongusO: Body of pubis inferior along pubic crest
I: Middle third of linea aspera of the femur
Obturator nerve– Adduct hipAdductor Length Test
Adductor BrevisO: Inferior ramus of pubis
I: Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of the femur
Obturator Nerve– Adduct hipAdductor Length Test
Adductor MagnusO: Adductor part: Inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium.
O: Hamstring part: Ischial Tuberosity
I: Adductor tubercle
Adductor part: Obturator Nerve
Hamstring part: Tibial Nerve
– Adduct hip
– Flex hip
– Hamstring portion: Extend hip
Adductor Length Test
Gracillis O: Body of inferior ramus of pubis
I: Superior part of medial surface of tibia
Obturator Nerve– Adducts hip
– Flexes knee
– Assists in internal rotation of hip
Gracillis Strength and Length Tests
Obturator ExternusO: Obturator foramen
I: Trochanteric fossa of femur
Obturator nerve– Laterally rotation of hipObturator Externus Length Test

Anterior and Lateral Compartments of the Leg

Muscles AttachementsNerve Supply ActionsSpecial Tests
Tibialis AnteriorO: Lateral condyle and superior half of the tibia
I: Medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal
Deep Fibular Nerve– Dorsiflexes ankle
– Inverts ankle
Tibialis Anterior Strength and Length Tests
Extensor Hallucis LongusO: Middle part of anterior surface of fibula
I: Dorsal aspect of distal phalanx of the big toe
Deep Fibular Nerve– Extends the big toe
– Dorsiflexes ankle
EHL Strength and Length Tests
Extensor Digitorum LongusO: Lateral condyle of tibia
I: Middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Deep Fibular Nerve– Extends lateral four digits
– Dorsiflexes ankle
EDL Strength and Length Tests
Fibularis LongusO: Head and superior 2/3rds of lateral surface of fibula
I: Base of first metatarsal and medial cuneiform
Superficial Fibular Nerve-Everts ankle
– Supports Transverse arch of the foot
Fibularis Longus Strength and Length Tests
Fibularis BrevisO: Inferior 2/3rds of lateral surface of fibula
I: Dorsal surface of tuberosity of base of 5th metatarsal
Superficial Fbular Nerve– Everts ankleFibularis Brevis Strength and Length Tests

Posterior Compartment of Leg

Muscles Attachements Nerve Supply ActionsSpecial Tests
Tibialis PosteriorO: Interosseous membrane, posterior surface of tibia
I: Tuberosity of the navicular, cuneiforms, cuboid and bases of 2nd– 4th metatarsals
Tibial Nerve– Plantarfles ankles
– Inverts ankle
Single Heel Raise
GastrocnemiusO: Lateral head: Lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur
Medial Head: Popliteal surface of femur
I: Achilles tendon
Tibial Nerve– Plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended
– Flexes knee
Thompson’s Test
SoleusO: Soleal Line of tibia
I: Achilles tendon
Tibial Nerve– Plantarflexes ankleThompson’s Test
Flexor Hallucis LongusO: Inferior t2/3rds of posterior surface of fibula
I: Base of distal phalanx of the big toe
Tibial Nerve– Flexes big toeFHL Strength and Length Tests
Flexor Digitorum LongusO: Medial part of posterior surface of tibia
I: Bases of distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Tibial Nerve– Flexes lateral 4 digits
– Supports longitudinal arches of the foot
FDL Strength and Length Tests

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: