Body Fluid Conditions

Edema: excess fluid in interstitial spaces

4 processed involved:

  1. Increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure
  2. Increase in cap Hillary permeability 
  3. Decrease in colloid osmotic pressure
  4. Obstruction in lymphatic drainage 
ConditionDescriptionCauseManifestation
HypernatremiaIncrease in sodiumdecrease intake of fluid
increased water output
cellular dehydration, thirst, dry skin, decreased skin tugor, confusion, dizziness, coma
HyponatremiaDecrease in sodium water gain, replacement of fluid losses with sodium-free water, excessive consumption of water
salt loss
swelling of brain cells, lethargy, confusion, seizures, swelling of other cells, swelling of muscle cells
HyperkalemiaIncrease in potassiuminadequate elimination of K+, excessive intake of K+restlessness, intestinal cramping, diarrhea, anxiety, tingling, numbness, cardiac arrest
Hypokalemia Decrease in potassiumexcessive loss of K+. inadequate intake of K+postural hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias, diminished reflexes, nausea, muscle weakness
Alkalosisan increase in blood pH above 7.45 excess accumulation of bicarbonate ions or loss of hydrogen ions
Respiratory Alkalosis: hyperventilation, onset of asthma attack
Metabolic Alkalosis: vomiting, excess consumption of bicarbonate
lightheadedness, tingling and numbness of fingers and toes, muscle twitching, tetany, convulsions
Acidosisoccurs with and increase in hydrogen ions within the body leading to decreased pHrespiratory system failure leading to rise in blood CO2
Impaired function of respiratory centre, chest injury, chronic lung disorders
weakness, lethargy, confusion, headache, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, hyperventilation

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