Cardiovascular Conditions

ConditionDescriptionCauseManifestationTreatment
AtherosclerosisHardening and thickening of the arterial wallsgenetics, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, increased LDL, decreased HDL, autoimmune NoneDiet, decreased fat, decrease alcohol, weight control, exercises
Transient Ischemic Attack Episode of neurological dysfunction lasting minutes to hours. “mini stroke. No necrosis of brain tissueTemporary reduction in blood flow from a partial occlusion of an arteryDizziness, sleepiness, altered sensations, confusions, difficulty swallowing, lack of coordinationPrevention and weight loss, low dose aspirin
Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA)Acute, focal neurological deficit, secondary to vascular disorder
Classifications:
Hemorrhagic Stroke – when there’s a bleed in the brain. More fatal than ischemic
Ischemic Stroke – Lack of oxygen to brain
Hemorrhagic: high blood pressure, trauma, tumours
Ischemic: cerebral thrombosis
Hemorrhagic : sudden onset of headache and incoordination, come and death
Ischemic : F.A.S.T
Corticosteroids, anticonvulsant, clot-buster, drugs to manage hypertension
Myocardial InfarctionDecreased blood flow causing necrosis of heart tissuesOcclusions of coronary arteryPain, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, pressure on chestgo to the hospital, Cardiovascular rehab
Coronary Artery Diseasedecreased blood flow to the heartatherosclerosisAngina, dysrthymias, shortness of breathprevention, weight loss, blood thinners, beta blockers
DysrthymiasAny change in heart rate or rhythmabnormal K+ levels, heart attack, congenital heart disease, hyperthyroid, drugs, alcohol, caffeineoften asymptomatic, slow, fast or irregular heart rate, chest pain, fatigueshock, defibrillation, pacemakers, medication
Hypertensionelevation of blood pressure more than 140/90 idiopathic, secondary to kidney diseaseasymptomatic, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, stupor, confusionchange diet, exercise, decrease alcohol consumption, sodium, stress
Congestive Heart FailureHeart fails because it can no longer pump blood either because it is too weak or unable to fill upCAD, infection, congenital heart disease, MI, heart valve diseaselow salt diet, cease smoking, exercise with caution, weight loss, resting after exercise and eating, blood thinners, valve replacement
Varicose VeinsEnlarged, swollen, tortuous veins filled with stagnant bloodpregnancy, standing for prolonged periods, increased abdominal pressurefullness in legs, aching in legs, visible veins, canklesdecrease standing, standing on anti-fatigue mats, wear support stockings
AneurysmsWeak point in blood vessels, usually artery, making it prone to ruptureGenetics, Marfan’s Syndrome, Bacterial/fungal infections, CADasymptomatic until grown to significant size.
Cerebral : Double or loss of vision
Thoracic: Chest/ upper back pain
Abdominal: Pulse in abdomen, pain in low back
Watch and wait

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