Endocrine Conditions

ConditionDescriptionCauseManifestationTreatment
Hypopituitarismdecrease secretions of one or more of the 8 hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brainACTH: life threatening, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness – lost last
TSH : cold intolerance, skin dryness, myexedma, lethargy – lost second last
FSH and LH: amennorhea, atrophy of reproductive organs – lost second and third
GH: growth failure in children, social withdrawal, fatigue, decrease in well being for adults – lost first

find underlying cause
HyperpituitarismPituitary gland too active in the secretion of hormonesbenign tumoursheadaches, fatigue, neck pain, stiffness, seizures, acromegaly treat underlying cause
Acromegalyexcess production of GH in adultsbenign tumoursmall bones continue to grow, soft tissue continues to grow, organ enlargement, excessive sweating, oily skin, heat intolerance, parenthesisremove tumour, radiation, medication to inhibit GH
Diabetes InspidusInsufficient ADH due to neurogenic, nephrogenic or psychogenic causes resulting in diluted urine, polydispia and polyuria Neurogenic: disruption of synthesis, transportation or release of ADH in the brain
Nephrogenic : damage at nephron causes the ADH to not reach the target cells, leading to no reabsorption of water
Psychogenic: from extreme consumption of water
excessive urination, excessive thirst, dry skin, muscle weakness, electrolyte, imbalancetreat underlying cause, injections of ADH
SIADHexcess ADH
Urine is concentration and urination is infrequent, blood is thin and diulte
head trauma, brain tumour, any surgery, infection, pain and stresswatery blood, concentrated urine, equal output and input of sodium, lack of peripheral edema Treat underlying problem
Addison’s DiseaseLack of cortisol and aldosterone secretionsauto-immune destruction of glandular tissue, infections, metastasis from lung and breast cancer, surgery and trauma to area around the adrenalssymptoms occur after 80% of functional tissue is present.
Hyper-pigmentation of skin, vitiligo, postural hypotension
Treat underlying cause, drug replacement therapy, salt tablets
Secondary Adrenal Cortex Insufficiency/Secondary Hypocortisolismlittle of no ACTH is present. Adrenals, as a result of not being stimulated, atrophy and corticosteroids become depletedtumour on the pituitary or hypothalamus, removal of pituitary gland, sudden withdrawal from corticosteroid medicationSimilar to Addison’s but aldosterone and potassium levels remain normalTreat underlying cause
Cushing’s DiseaseExcess ACTH that leads to excess in cortisolexogenous administration of corticosteroids over a long period of time, pituitary tumour, tumour in adrenals, autoimmune hyperplasiaweight gain, muscle weakness, altered fat metabolism, thin skin, back pain, hirsutism in females, electrolyte imbalancetreat underlying cause
Primary AldosteronsimExcessive Secretion of aldosteroneAldosterone producing benign adenoma of adrenal cortex, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasiahypertension, hypokalemia, pseudohypocalcemiaTreat underlying cause
HypothyroidismUnder-active thyroidinjury, progressive loss of functional thyroid tissue, thyroid gland removal, iodine deficiency, lack of thyroidgradual weakness and fatigue, unexplained weight gain, loss of appetite, cold intolerance, dry, cold, pale, yellow skin, puffy face, husky voice
HyperthyroidismOver-active thyroidGrave’s Disease, excessive thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidismhunger, weight loss, moist, warm skin, increased perspiration to rid body of excessive heatanti-thyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy, surgery
Diabetes MellitusChronic disorder of carb, fat and protein metabolism.
Classification:
Type 1: Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2: Non-insulin dependent
Gestational
Pre-Diabetes
Type 1: anti-islet cell antibodies attack Beta-cells, onset occurs usually before 20, often related to genetics and keto-acidosis
Type 2: adult onset after 30, insulin resistance occurs, number of beta cells decreases
increase urination, increased thirst, increased appetite, hyperglycaemia, extreme fatigue, weight change, tingling/numbness in hands Insulin pump, monitor sugar instake

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