Neurological Conditions

ConditionDescriptionCauseManifestationTreatment
Carpal Tunnel SyndromeCompression-type focal neuropathy of median nervebone dislocation, inflammation of tendons, pregnancy, diabetes mellituspain, paresthesia and numbness of thumb and first 2 and 1/2 digits of hand, pain worse at night, atrophy of abductor pollicus avoid overuse, splinting, Anti-inflammatory drugs
Bell’s PalsyUnilateral loss of facial nerve (CN 11) functionlinked to inflammatory reactions in or near the stylo-mastoid foramen, HSV-1, subluxation of TMJ or cervical vertebraesudden onset of flaccid paralysis, unilateral, dry eyes, taste and speech affected, weak muscles on flaccid side combination of steroidal anti-inflammatories and anti-viral meds, massage, facial exercises
Trigeminal Neuralgia Facial tics or grimaces characterized by stabbing pain along the unilateral sensory distribution of one or more of the trigeminal nerve branchesidiopathic, mechanical pressure on nerve
Triggered by speaking, chewing, swallowing, sitting in a draft
very painful, sharp, electric pain, 10-60 seconds of pain, muscular tic along pain path
Depends on source of pain, TMJ should be treated, acupuncture, analgesics
Multiple SclerosisPatchy demylenation of the CNS
Classifications:
Relapsing-Remitting: 1-2 flare ups every 1-3 years followed by remission
Primary Progressive: after symptoms appear, deterioration occurs continuously without remissions
Secondary Progressive: After years of relapse- remitting, it becomes continuous deterioration
Progressive- Relapsing: steady progression from onset along with acute attacks
autoimmune, exposure to common viruses, geography and geneticsFatigue, optic signs, brain stem lesions, cognitive dysfunction, spinal cord lesions, paresthesia, painCorticosteroids, Beta interferons, physio
Alzheimer DiseaseProgressive neurological disease that results in irreversible loss of nerve cells in the brain, leading to impaired memory, judgement, decision-making, concentration and language. Hallmarked by plaques and tangles
Unknown, Head injury, CAD, atherosclerosisStage 1: 2-4 years
– short term memory loss, getting lost, changes in mood and behaviour, personality changes
Stage 2: several years
– difficulty performing familiar tasks, language problems, poor judgement, problems with abstract thinking
Stage 3: 1-2 years
– unable to recognize family and friends, apathetic, bed ridden
No cure, progressive disease, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatories , cholinergic drugs, life long activity
Parkinson’s Diseasea degenerative disorder of motor functions characterized by involuntary tremors, progressive muscle rigidity, slowing of voluntary movements. Destruction of substantia nigracombination of genetic and environmental factorsEarly : tremor at rest, unilateral, bradykinesia and akinesia, stiffness or rigidity, fatigue and depression
Later: poor stability, sleep problems, dementia
L-DOPA, anticholinergics, Dopamine Agonists, physio
SeizuresSudden, explosive and disorderly electrical active neurons which produces transit changes in brain functionIn children: birth injury, hypoxia, infections, hypoglycaemia, genetics
In adults: genetics, brain injury, stroke
EpilepsyA condition of recurrent seizures that occur without an identifiable cause or cannot be corrected
Classification:
Partial Seizure : 1 hemisphere involved
Simple – no loss of consciousness
Complex – Impaired consciousness
Secondarily Generalized – Begins as partial and progresses to Generalize
Generalized Seizures: Initial involvement of both hemispheres
Absence Seizure : zoning out
Tonic- Clonic – Serious form
Atonic- Sudden loss of muscle tone
Myoclonic- Brief involuntary muscle contractions
UnknownPartial : Facial movements, jerking of one part of body, tingling, sensory experiences of smells or sounds
Generalized : Aura, unconsciousness, childhood absences, uncontrolled jerking, apnea, salivation, incontinence
Anticonvulsant drugs, surgery, vagus nerve stimulation

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