Respiratory Conditions

ConditionDescriptionCauseManifestationTreatment
BronchitisInflammation of mucosa of the trachea and bronchial tree
Acute and Chronic
Acute: viruses, bacteria, chemical irritants
Chronic: cigarette smoking, air pollution, occupational hazards, repeated bronchial infections
Cough, sputum, purse-lip breathing, barrel chestAcute: humidify the air, rest, cough suppression
Chronic: bronchodilators, anticholinergic drugs, corticosteroids
BronchiectasisPermanent dilation and inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles bronchopneumonia, infection, accesses following aspiration, chronic bronchitis, chronic asthma, cystic fibrosisPersistent cough, accentuated when lying down, expectoration of foul smelling mucopurulent sputum, clubbing of fingersantibiotics, mucolytic agents, bronchodilators
AsthmaCharacterized by reversible episodes of bronchiospasms, inflammation of mucosa, hyper-secretions of mucus in response to variety of stimuli, Marked by airway narrowing and increased airway resistance
Extrinsic Asthma – atopic
Intrinsic Asthma- idiopathic
Extrinsic: family history
Intrinsic: exercise induced
wheezing, dyspnea cough, prolonged expiration decrease edema and inflammation, relieve bronchiospasms, block vasoconstrictions
Emphysema Over-inflation of lungs caused by trapped air. Alveoli get bigger, therefore decreased surface area and decrease gas exchange
Classification:
Centriacinar – most common, associated with smoking
Panacinar – involves entire alveolus
Centriacinar: chronic bronchitis, smoking, chronic asthma
Centriacinar: dyspnea, chronic cough, rapid, shallow breathing, wheezing, barrel shaped chest
Panacinar: dyspnea on exertion, no cough or sputum, no history of smoking
COPDIrreversible damage to airways and alveoli. Difficulty getting air in and out of lungssmoking, repeated lung infections as a childcough, mucus, wheezing, chest tightness, fatigueprophylactic disease prevention, oxygen therapy, inhaled corticosteroids

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